1. What are the possible therapies for female infertility?
  2. What types of surgical procedures may be possible in case of female infertility?

What are the possible therapies for female infertility?

Infertility can be solved through medical treatment or surgical procedures depending on the causes that have determined it. In 25% of cases, female infertility is caused by hormonal imbalances that may be solved through a specific pharmacological therapy or with ovarian stimulation that consists in the administration of gonadotropins: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) that stimulates follicle development and luteinizing hormone (LH) that promotes ovulation. 

Ovulation absence that leads to a reduction of fertility can be caused by hyperprolactinemia in case of adenomas of the pituitary gland, hypothyroidism or chronic renal insufficiency. Therefore, the intake of medications that reduce prolactin levels may lead to the return of ovulation. 

Changes in lifestyle may also have an impact on improving women fertility; for example, it might be useful to reduce daily stress, interrupt alcohol or drug consumption, quit smoking, or modify eating habits, as regulating body weight may also have a positive impact on the chances of conceiving.

What types of surgical procedures may be possible in case of female infertility?

Female infertility may also be solved through surgical procedures, like in the case of serious endometriosis or ovarian cysts treated through laparoscopy. Laparoscopy also allows to correct morphofunctional alterations of the Fallopian tubes. In case of minor tube obstruction “hydrotubations” may be recommended. This procedure consists in inserting in the uterus a small quantity of air followed by liquids containing antibiotics and hydrocortisone and then air again to restore the functionality of the Fallopian tubes that play a crucial role in conceiving. Hydrotubations are effective in 50% of cases with pregnancy in the following 12 months. However, in case such procedure is not effective, a further chance for pregnancy is given by assisted reproduction.