1. What is male sterility?
  2. What are the possible infectious causes of male sterility?

What is male sterility?

Male sterility corresponds to a reduced reproductive capacity in men and contributes for 50% to sterility in couples. The condition of male sterility is determined when certain conditions occur, like for example azoospermia, that is the total absence of spermatozoids, or criptozoospermia, which indicates the drastic lack of spermatozoids in seminal fluid. Another condition is the absence of ejaculation (anejaculation) or necrozoospermia that occurs when the spermatozoids present in seminal fluid are dead. Sterility is defined as primary when a man has never been able to induce a pregnancy, and secondary when he has been previously able to induce a pregnancy. There are different causes of sterility: genetic, anatomical, hormonal and infectious.

What are the possible infectious causes of male sterility?

Urological and seminal tract infections are among the primary causes of male sterility because they cause inflammatory states of the seminal tracts that may damage developing spermatozoids, the prostate and seminal vesicles due to the presence of germs and bacteria. Among the factors that trigger infections of the male reproductive system there are prostate related diseases, improper hygiene and sexual habits, surgical procedures of the reproductive system or the presence of a bladder catheter. Even when the symptoms of the infection have disappeared, the effects on male fertility may continue in the long term. Sexually transmitted diseases like Papillomavirus, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia may also cause male sterility. Last but not least, “orchitis” that are testicular infections, are also responsible of male sterility after puberty as they damage the testicles and reduce the efficiency of spermatozoids. Among the most common, there is the one caused by Epidemic Parotitis that is a viral infection of the parotid glands, located behind the ears, commonly called “mumps”.