1. How is female sterility diagnosed?
  2. Which are the most common investigations for female sterility?

How is female sterility diagnosed?

In order to diagnose female sterility it is essential to consider hormonal dosage given that hormonal imbalances are among the most frequent causes of female sterility. Appropriate clinical exams aim to evaluate the ovarian reserve, that is the asset of oocytes, and therefore to assess women fertility. The most common ones are: FSH, LH, estradiol in the first half of the cycle (2nd-3rd day of menstruation); progesterone and prolactin in the second half of the cycle; and finally TSH and Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) that determine the stimulation and growth of the follicle during the menstrual cycle.

Which are the most common investigations for female sterility?

Instrumental investigations can also be done to diagnose sterility as these allow to assess the state of health of the female reproductive system, given that anatomical problems may be a cause of sterility. For example, through a transvaginal scan, it is possible to evaluate the ovarian follicle count, the anatomy of the female reproductive system, as well as its possible alterations. Hysteroscopic techniques also allow to obtain a complete vision of the uterus and other areas; it is in fact important to evaluate the state of the mucosa of the Fallopian tubes through hysterosalpingography to recognise potential pathologies that can cause a reduction of fertility.

Last but not least, it is important to promptly identify the presence of vaginal infections or infections to the neck of the uterus through diagnostic exams like vaginal swab or Pap test given that infectious causes are also among the most common causes of female sterility.

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