What are the possible therapies for female sterility?
The treatment for female sterility depends on the causes of such sterility. In fact, therapies can be medical, if the nature of the problem is hormonal, or surgical, if sterility is caused by anatomical problems. In case of hormonal dysfunctions or alterations, the doctor may recommend a specific pharmacological therapy, which must be personalised on the basis of genetics and constantly monitored through hormonal dosage and instrumental investigations. Pharmacological therapy or controlled ovarian stimulation consists in the exogenous administration of gonadotropins, hormones that can be of two types: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) that stimulates follicle development, and luteinizing hormone (LH) that promotes ovulation. Such treatment is effective in 30% of cases and usually well tolerated by patients.
Surgery as a therapy for female sterility
In case female sterility is determined by anatomical causes, the recommended therapy may be surgical. In fact, endometriosis, a uterine pathology, can be solved with laparoscopic surgery that allows the removal of the lesions caused by the extra-uterine endometrium. Laparoscopy is also useful for the removal of ovarian cysts and to coagulate, with the use of a laser, the damaged or unhealthy uterine tissue. After the surgical phase, women are treated with specific medications and in 50% of cases pregnancy takes place after 6 months.
In case of minor tube obstruction (congested or tortuous tubes etc.), so called “hydrotubations” may be the solution. Hydrotubations consist in inserting in the uterus, through the cervical canal, a small quantity of air followed by liquids like antibiotics and hydrocortisone and then air again to restore the functionality of the Fallopian tubes.
Instead, in case of serious female sterility, assisted reproduction may be recommended; this includes artificial insemination, heterologous fecundation and in vitro fertilization (FIVET, ICSI, FIVET GENETIC).